Georgianna Kemp

1868 - 1952
Fraser River Gold Rush
Morrill Anti-Bigamy Act
First Transatlantic Cable
James Kemp Family in 1871 Canada Census
Pacific Scandal
North-West Mounted Police
Long Distance Telephone
James Kemp marries Melissa Wilson
James A. Kemp Family in 1881 Canada Census
Time Zones
Transcontinental Passenger Train
Moved to Chicago, Illinois
Professional Football
1893 World's Fair
Plessy v. Ferguson
William Jennings Bryan
Marconi Invents Radio
1897 Coal Miner Strike
Spanish American War
Georgianna marries Charles Auble
Chicago River Reversed
Charles Auble Family in 1900 U.S. Census
Wright Brothers
Ford Motors
First Radio Broadcast
Auble Family in 1910 U.S. Census
Charles Auble Family Moves to San Diego
Titanic Sinks
Lincoln Highway
White Hurricane
World War I
National Park Service
Flu Pandemic
1918 Rose Bowl
Lyle Carringer Family in 1920 U.S. Census
18th Amendment
19th Amendment
First Public Radio Broadcast
Rose Bowl Stadium
Hollywood Sign
Scopes Monkey Trial
Herbert Hoover
Great Depression
Lyle Carringer Family in 1930 U.S. Census
Empire State Building
New Deal
Dust Bowl
Amelia Earhart
Grapes of Wrath
World War II
Lyle L. Carringer Family in 1940 U.S. Census
Pearl Harbor
Atomic Bomb
General Patton
Polio Vaccine
Brown v. Board of Education
Vietnam War
Cuban Missile Crisis
  • Childbirth
  • Childhood
  • Clothing
  • Commerce
  • Communication
  • Diet
  • Education
  • Entertainment
  • Household
  • Hygiene
  • Marriage
  • Medicine
  • Military
  • Politics
  • Religion
  • Transportation
  1. Georgianna is born in Middleton, Norfolk, Ontario, Canada
  1. James Kemp Family in 1871 Canada Census
  1. The Canadian Prime Minister resigns as a result of a scandal
  1. The North-West Mounted Police is founded
  1. Mother dies
  1. The first long distance phone call is made in Canada
  1. Several inventors fight for the patent on the first telephone
  1. James Kemp marries Melissa Wilson
  1. James A. Kemp Family in 1881 Canada Census
  1. Time zones are introduced in Canada
  1. The first scheduled Canadian transcontinental passenger train makes the journey across Canada
  1. Moved to Chicago, Illinois
  1. The first game of professional football is played
  1. Chicago welcomes millions of visitors to World's Columbian Exposition
  1. Plessy v. Ferguson case legalizes separate facilities for blacks and whites across the U.S.
  1. Bryan takes national political stage
  1. Guglielmo Marconi invents radio
  1. Massive strike sweeps coal country
  1. The United States declares war with Spain in the Caribbean
  1. Georgianna marries Charles Auble
  1. Daughter Emily born
  1. Engineers successfully reverse the flow of the Chicago River away from Lake Michigan
  1. Charles Auble Family in 1900 U.S. Census
  1. Father dies
  1. The Wright brothers fly the first heavier-than-air aircraft
  1. The new Ford Motor Company makes the first widely affordable car
  1. The first radio broadcast is sent from Massachusetts
  1. Auble Family in 1910 U.S. Census
  1. Charles Auble Family Moves to San Diego
  1. The RMS Titanic sinks after hitting an iceberg in the north Atlantic Ocean
  1. America's first transcontinental highway is built
  1. A large winter storm devastates the Great Lakes region
  1. The Great War in Europe eventually pulls in American involvement
  1. Charles Auble dies
  1. President Wilson creates a new agency to protect America's parks
  1. Virus spreads around the world
  1. Camp Lewis faces Mare Island in 1918 Rose Bowl
  1. Lyle Carringer Family in 1920 U.S. Census
  1. The 18th Amendment prohibits alcohol production in the United States
  1. Women in the U.S. are granted the right to vote with the 19th Amendment.
  1. Listeners tune in to public radio
  1. The Rose Bowl Stadium is completed, becoming one of the largest and most famous venues in sports
  1. The Hollywood sign becomes an iconic American symbol
  1. John T. Scopes is accused of teaching evolution in a public school
  1. Alexander Fleming discovers penicillin and revolutionizes the medical world
  1. Herbert Hoover is inaugurated as the 31st President
  1. The Great Depression strikes California, leading to the worst economic crisis in the state's history
  1. Lyle Carringer Family in 1930 U.S. Census
  1. The Empire State Building is constructed in New York City.
  1. President Roosevelt passes New Deal programs to help revitalize the economy
  1. Farmers abandon their lands after the Dust Bowl destroys crops and enhances economic strain caused by the Great Depression
  1. Amelia Earhart disappears over the Pacific Ocean.
  1. John Steinbeck's most famous book is published, selling over 430,000 copies within the first year
  1. Impact of World War II reaches the West Coast
  1. Lyle L. Carringer Family in 1940 U.S. Census
  1. Over 11 million people are killed by the Nazis in organized genocide
  1. Japanese planes attack Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii, killing 2,400 Americans
  1. The U.S. drops the first atomic bombs on Hiroshima and Nagasaki.
  1. A Californian, one of America's greatest generals dies after a car crash
  1. Georgianna dies
Georgianna born, 1868
Georgianna was born on 4 August 1868, in Middleton, Norfolk, Ontario, Canada. Her mother was Mary Jane Sovereen and was 28 years old when Georgianna was born. Her father was James Abraham Kemp and was 37 years old at the time.
Ontario, 1868
During Georgianna's lifetime, Ontario was a largely undeveloped region of rolling hills, waterways, and dense forests. Located near the Great Lakes, water played an essential role in the lives of Ontarians. The surrounding waterways were busy trade routes as well as recreational centers. Although many of Georgianna's fellow Ontario citizens lived in rural areas, urban centers like Ottawa and Toronto had grown in size along with the development and expansion of the railroad. Ontario's economy was primarily based on agriculture — mainly fruits and dairy. Other Ontarians worked in industries like tailoring, shoemaking, milling and lumbering. Although heavy precipitation fell year-round, summers were mild. Winters were cold, stormy, and blanketed Ontario regularly with snow.
Although some children were born in hospitals during Georgianna's time, the majority of Canadian mothers gave birth in their own homes. Midwives, or occasionally doctors on housecalls, oversaw the majority of these home births. Simple forms of anesthesia like chloroform were available, but many women relied on alcohol as the only means of easing their pain. Christian children were generally baptized at a local church a few days after their birth. Mothers, or wet nurses, would breastfeed the infants for at least the first several months of their lives. Infant mortality and child death rates were decreasing across Canada thanks to new efforts to improve sanitation and provide pure milk for children, but risks of disease were still a constant concern.
James Kemp Family in 1871 Canada Census, 1871
In the 1871 Census Records for Windham township, Norfolk County, Ontario, the James Kemp family included:

* James Kemp, Age 40, born Ontario, Religion Wesleyan Methodist, Origin English, Carpenter;
* Mary, Age 30, born Ontario, Religion Baptist, Origin German;
* Sarah, Age 9, born Ontario, Baptist;
* Seymour, Age 7, born Ontario, Baptist;
* Melvina, Age 5, born Ontario, Baptist;
* Georgianna, Age 2, born Ontario, Baptist.
Pacific Scandal, 1873
John A. Macdonald
In 1873, when Georgianna was a 4 year old, Canadian Prime Minister John A. Macdonald was forced to resign as a result of the Pacific Scandal. The scandal began when Macdonald received election campaign funds from railroad magnate Hugh Allan. In exchange for the funds, Macdonald promised Allan the lucrative contract to build the Canadian Pacific Railway. Canadians like Georgianna were shocked when news of the scandal broke, as it was the biggest political controversy in the country's history. Despite Macdonald's resignation, he was able to recover politically and was elected to the office of Prime Minister again a few years later.
North-West Mounted Police, 1873
The North-West Mounted Police
In order to fulfill the need to police the Northwest Territories, an Act of Parliament was passed in 1873, establishing the North-West Mounted Police. Soon, 150 recruits joined the newly formed force and were sent to keep rowdy American whiskey traders in and around Fort Whoop-Up in western Canada from causing trouble in the region. The dedication of the North-West Mounted Police and its skill for keeping the peace earned it a reputation across Canada, and law officers in Georgianna's community learned from their example. Years later, in 1904, the unit was renamed the Royal Canadian Mounted Police.
Old fashioned ice skates
Whether growing up in English or French speaking Canada, a lot was expected of all children during Georgianna's time. Education was still largely the realm of the upper classes, but more school houses were available to working class children than in decades past. Still, work was often a focus of a child's life from an early age—whether it meant helping their parents harvest crops and herd livestock, or in some cases, working in an urban factory for pitiful wages. Even as child labor regulations improved the situation for Canada's youth, there wasn't always much time for fun and games. Wealthier children might own expensive dolls or figurines, but many Canadian families simply improvised homemade toys related to preparing a child for adulthood responsibilities. As a result, toy horses were popular. Common games, meanwhile, included Parcheesi, chess, dominoes, and checkers. Winter sports still included sledding and ice skating.
Mother dies, 1874
Georgianna's mother Mary Jane Sovereen passed away in Middleton, Norfolk, Ontario, Canada at the age of 33. Georgianna was 5.
Royal Military College of Canada
School attendance was mandatory in Canada during Georgianna's lifetime, so many children in her community moved away from traditional home schooling or apprenticeships and into the public school system. Students could begin as early as age five and continue through their teen years. Some Canadians had the opportunity to pursue advanced learning by attending prestigious institutions like the University of Toronto, the Royal Military College of Canada, and McGill University. Education was becoming increasingly important, especially as demanding industrial work and modern office jobs became available, requiring increased literacy. While in school, children like Georgianna would learn basic reading, writing, and math, in addition to social training about how to be good mothers and hard-working fathers. Schooling conditions were improving as well, with a greater availability of textbooks, improved heating and plumbing in the school buildings, and the serving of cold milk and hot lunches for students.
Long Distance Telephone, 1876
A major milestone in communication was reached when Georgianna was 7. On August 10th, 1876, Alexander Graham Bell made the first long distance telephone call between Brantford, Ontario and Paris, Ontario. Although it was only a one-way phone call, this was the first time that the human voice was able to be transmitted electronically between two cities. Soon, Canadians like Georgianna would be able to use telephones to talk with people around the world.
Telephone, 1876
Antonio Meucci, the true inventor of the telephone
Alexander Graham Bell
When Georgianna was 7, Americans and people around the world were excited by the emergence of an incredible new communication technology: the telephone. Sixteen years earlier, in 1860, Antonio Meucci - a highly educated Italian immigrant - demonstrated the "teletrofono" voice communication device in New York. Meucci had created the system to help care for his wife, who was paralyzed and bed-bound. Years later, Scottish-born, Boston-based inventor Alexander Graham Bell allegedly utilized Meucci's plans and materials (they shared a laboratory) and patented what was widely reported in newspapers as the first functioning telephone. He showcased his device for the first by calling his assistant and announcing the famous line, "Mr. Watson, come here, I want to see you."

Meucci sued Bell over the patent, but died before the court heard the case. Bell's claim to the telephone soon came under fire from another inventor named Elisha Gray. On February 11, 1876, Gray had filed a patent for a device that could transmit musical tones, but not speech. Later that same day, Bell filed the patent for his proposed telephone. A well publicized lawsuit followed, but in the end Bell was victorious. He went on to make a fortune from the telephone and was regarded by most people in Georgianna's time as its rightful inventor. The Bell Telephone Company also became one of the giants in the new telecommunications industry. It wasn't until more than 100 years later, in 2002, that the United States Congress officially recognized Antonio Meucci as the actual inventor of the telephone.
James Kemp marries Melissa Wilson, 1876
James Abraham Kemp married, secondly, to Melissa Wilson on 16 November 1876 in Innisfil township, Simcoe County, Ontario.
A toothbrush from the 19th century
Bathing wasn't a daily activity for people during Georgianna's time, but hygiene practices were improving and becoming more of a concern for people of all backgrounds. Wealthier members of society often owned quality bathtubs made from sheet copper or zinc, while those in the lower class might have a wooden tub, reusing the same water for the entire family, particularly before indoor plumbing became widely available. Soaps made from animal fat and wood ashes could be used for bathing as well as washing clothes and cleaning the house. These efforts, coupled with flower petals used as deodorants, gradually improved the smell of heavily-trafficked city streets throughout Canada.

Indoor plumbing had not yet reached rural areas during Georgianna's youth, and was only beginning to be introduced in cities by the mid 1800s. This meant that water had to be brought in from the outside when needed for cooking, laundry, or bathing, and that water was sometimes contaminated. A lack of plumbing also meant no indoor bathroom, so families used an outhouse or chamber pots when nature called.

Oral hygiene also received more attention in Georgianna's community, as toothpaste and toothbrushes were being mass produced for the first time. Early toothbrushes had coarse boar's hair bristles, however, and much of the population still saw little purpose in putting in the effort.

Cloth diapers were cleaned and changed more regularly towards the end of the century, as doctors warned against the risks of reusing them. Parents often used burnt flour to relieve diaper rash. For feminine hygiene, women gradually moved from cotton cloths to mass-produced cloth pads, but not until late in the 1800s.
James A. Kemp Family in 1881 Canada Census, 1881
In the 1881 Census Records for Middleton township, Norfolk County North, Ontario, the James A. Kemp household included:

* James A. Kemp, Age 49, born Ontario, Religion Wesleyan Methodist, Origin English, Carpenter;
* Melissa, Age 35, born Ontario, Religion Wesleyan Methodist, Origin Irish;
* James, Age 8, born Ontario;
* Georgianna, Age 12, born Ontario;
* Alfred, Age 1, born Ontario.
European fashions seeped into Canada as well as the rest of the world
Improved technology and long-distance communication caused swift and drastic changes in fashion during Georgianna's lifetime. In 1884 the first mail-order catalog allowed recent styles to be more accessible to everyone in Canada, including those in remote, rural areas. Thanks to inventions like the telegraph and the steam engine, new European fashions were able to appear in Canada just two months after being introduced in Europe. While most of the working class' attire continued to be made at home, there was soon less of a difference between conservative rural clothing and up-to-date fashionable dress. English cloth often replaced homespun cloth in everyday dress, and men mostly wore trousers and waist-length jackets, while women wore wide skirts with embellishments and tight-fitting corsets.
Time Zones, 1883
Time zones helped prevent excessive waiting at train stations
When Georgianna was 14, time zones were introduced in Canada for the first time. Before 1883, most local communities rendered time based on "high noon," when the sun was at its highest point. As railroads led to faster travel and commerce between distant communities, the lack of a standardized time zone caused confusion and chaos with regards to times of arrival and departures at train stations. After a railroad magnate was angrily forced to spend the night in a train station as a result of this confusion, a political push for regulation began. It was the railroad companies that created the first time zones in North America in 1883 to make travel and commerce easier and more organized for people around Georgianna. This change was well-received and very successful, and within a year, international time zones were established, improving navigation around the world.
Canadians like Georgianna were legally entitled to religious freedom, although there was not much religious diversity during her lifetime. English-speaking Canadians typically belonged to the Church of England, although several different Protestant churches began popping up across Canada over time. The majority of French-Canadians practiced Roman Catholicism, which was historically the dominant religion for those of French descent. Local churches often helped to care for the sick and needy, in addition to influencing educational standards and providing a social outlet for their members. Local parishes would often record the births, marriages, and deaths of people in Georgianna's community.
Transcontinental Passenger Train, 1886
When Georgianna was a teenager in 1886, the first scheduled transcontinental passenger train reached Pt. Moody, British Colombia, just under a week after it had left Montreal. The train consisted of two baggage cars, one second-class coach, a mail car, two first-class coaches, two sleeping cars, and a diner. With the railroad now effectively connecting the eastern and western ends of Canada, Georgianna's fellow Canadians could now explore the full expanse of their country like never before.
A 1940s Canadian wedding
Marriage was extremely common in Canada during Georgianna's lifetime, as nearly 90% of all Canadians married at least once during their lifetime. Courtship typically started in a person's late teens, and most couples were married in their twenties. The average age of grooms was between 25 and 29, while brides were typically between 20 or 25 years old. Some Canadians chose to be married in religious ceremonies, often held in churches and performed by a member of the clergy, while others opted for a civil ceremony. Honeymoons were common, as many newlyweds chose to celebrate their marriage by taking a short trip together. Once married, couples were often together for life, although divorce was becoming more common in Canada. However, husbands or wives would sometimes just desert their spouse in lieu of a formal divorce.
An icebox
After railroads began crisscrossing the Canadian countryside, isolated farmers and trappers' diet changed drastically. Milk could finally be kept fresh during transport, and quickly became popular among almost all Canadians, not just those with milk cows. Grocery stores began popping up all around Georgianna's country, and the convenience of their canned, boxed, and prepared food soon replaced local markets. They also helped introduce new products such as baking powder, powdered gelatin, and glass preserving jars. Canadians cooked their foods on either wood or coal stoves. To keep their perishable foods from going bad, Georgianna's friends and family would place them on a block of ice, or, in the winter months, bury them in the yard. The dining room and kitchen soon became an important social fixture and a status symbol for middle-class families in Canada.
Early 1900s Canadian military
In order to establish a home defense force, Canada passed the Militia Act, creating a sedentary militia of all men aged 16-60. While the force only existed on paper, small militias were active during peacetime, comprised of soldiers who trained for eight to 16 days a year. In the late 1800s, more than 13,000 soldiers (out of the Canadian population of 3 million) volunteered to fight in the army to guard the country against threats from Irish-American Fenians. Events such as the South African War and the Northwest Rebellion also required volunteers, as many Canadians were asked to protect not only their own homeland, but other lands of the British Empire, as well.
Moved to Chicago, Illinois, 1890
Georgianna Kemp moved to Chicago, Illinois in about 1890, joining her sister, Sarah Elizabeth Kemp and her husband Andrew Cropp there.
Illinois, 1890
During the 1800s, many European immigrants came to Illinois in search of religious and economic freedom. This influx, combined with the westward movement of Americans citizens, caused the overall population of Illinois to rise from just 7,500 in 1800 to more than 600,000 in 1850. Illinois' flat terrain and fertile lands made it possible for agriculture to thrive and become a staple of the economy. Living in Illinois at this time, Georgianna would have lived and worked around many farmers, ranchers, and fishermen.
A coffin bell, used to notify the living if a corpse regained consciousness
Georgianna lived during a time of great medical progress, as increased understanding of human anatomy was helping doctors and scientists come up with better solutions for many of the diseases, infections, and unsanitary conditions plaguing American life. The stethoscope was invented around this time, along with blood transfusions, cholera vaccines, laughing gas, and a number of new anesthetics. Those of Georgianna's friends that lived in or near large towns or cities benefited much sooner from these advances than those that lived in more rural areas.

As a further issue, only a handful of medical colleges and hospitals existed in the United States during Georgianna's life, and high infant mortality rates— along with often devastating outbreaks of chicken pox, measles, mumps, and whooping cough— kept the average lifespan barely above 40. Death, to put it bluntly, was a very common part of life.

In another morbid part of 19th century life, some of Georgianna's deceased friends or family may have actually been buried with a shovel or pickaxe in their coffin. Why? Because with many doctors still not able to diagnose whether a patient was in a coma, relatives wanted to be sure the dearly departed had a fighting chance just in case he woke up after his funeral!
Professional Football, 1892
In 1892, when Georgianna was 23, the first professional American football game was played. Purely an amateur sport up to this point, the game between the Allegheny Athletic Association and the Pittsburgh Athletic Club saw the two clubs reach out to top college players to join their teams for a Columbus Day match-up. William "Pudge" Heffelfinger, a star at Yale, was paid $500 to travel to Pittsburgh and play for the Allegheny squad—making him the first known football player to be paid in the U.S. By the early 20th century, the first professional leagues would form, and American football would soon become one of the most popular sports in the country.
1893 World's Fair, 1893
Chicago's White City in 1893.
For Georgianna and everyone else living in or near Chicago, the summer of 1893 would forever be remembered for the spectacle that was the World's Columbian Exposition—an ongoing world's fair marking the 400th anniversary of Columbus arriving in America. Just 20 years after the Great Fire, Chicago was now welcoming an estimated 27 million visitors from all over the globe to see the wonders created by its famed architects, including Frederick Law Olmsted, Louis Sullivan, Daniel Burnham, and George W. Ferris—who debuted the first ever Ferris Wheel at the event. The classically inspired "White City"—built in Chicago's Jackson Park neighborhood—served as a home to 70,000 different exhibitors in everything from art and dance to science and industry. Sadly, the fair's story ended tragically. First, Chicago mayor Carter Harrison was assassinated two days before the scheduled close of the festival. Then, a year later, arsonists destroyed much of the empty fairgrounds, turning the White City into rubble and erasing much of the good feeling that had been created there.
A circus wagon
Georgianna and her neighbors found a variety of new ways to entertain themselves. Traveling circuses and Vaudeville-style theatrical shows were popular. Aided by railroad travel, the state fair in Springfield drew larger and larger crowds each summer. The National League and the Chicago Cubs baseball franchise (then known as the White Stockings) was formed in the 1870s. Chicago drew visitors for many other reasons, as well, from boating on Lake Michigan to concerts by the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The amazing accomplishments of "The Chicago School" of architects in the decades after the Great Fire also inspired many of Georgianna's friends and neighbors, and helped turn Chicago into an architectural landmark.
Plessy v. Ferguson, 1896
Georgianna was 27 when the case of Plessy v. Ferguson was heard before the United States Supreme Court. Addressing the discrimination still faced by African-Americans in a post-slavery America, the Court's eventual ruling established the precedent of "separate but equal." This upheld the legality of having separate, segregated facilities and institutions for whites and blacks, be it water fountains or school systems. Plessy's defeat led to increased discussion over civil rights in America, but blacks would still face the obstacles of legal segregation for decades to come.
William Jennings Bryan, 1896
Around the turn of the 20th century, Georgianna's neighbors were proud to see native son William Jennings Bryan rise to national political prominence. Born in Illinois is 1860, Bryan moved to Nebraska as a young man. As a lawyer, he quickly became known for his powerful and persuasive speeches. In the early 1890s, Bryan's oratory skills and devotion to the common people saw him elected to the House of Representatives. He soon drew the attention of national Democratic leaders, becoming the party's nominee for president in 1896. While Bryan ultimately lost the election to Republican William McKinley, his "Cross of Gold" speech demanding economic overhaul cemented his status in the Democratic Party. He would run for president twice more, in 1900 and 1908.

Despite his unsuccessful presidential bids, Bryan still loomed large in the minds of Georgianna's neighbors. He served as the Secretary of State under Woodrow Wilson, then represented the anti-evolution prosecution in the infamous "Scopes Monkey Trial." When he passed away in 1925, Bryan was remembered by Georgianna's community as one of the most famous orators and politicians in American history.
19th century house
19th century house
Throughout Georgianna's life, housing was changing and evolving as Americans were pushing toward a distinct identity. Since settlers came from Germany, France, Spain, and England, housing was dictated by wealth and varied architecturally—but framed timber or rock was generally used. For Georgianna's friends and family, beds were made individually with no standard size and held mattresses stuffed with either straw or feathers. To heat the house, a chimney was placed in the middle of the home, doubling as a stove.

Typical houses had two rooms, but some families could afford two-story homes (with separate bedrooms for parents and children) or even stately manors on par with some of the nicer homes in Europe. Families generally had tables where they would sit to eat their meals. Most furniture was custom-made, but later in the 1800s, it became easier to purchase affordable, mass-produced goods with which to furnish a home.
Marconi Invents Radio, 1897
Marconi demonstrating the radio
Following in the tradition of dozens of Italian scientists and inventors, Guglielmo Marconi began studying at the Livorno Technical Institute in 1894. Focusing his efforts on understanding radio waves, he had patented a basic system of wireless telegraphy—the radio—by 1897. Marconi's first radio waves were initially short, averaging only a mile and a half long. But in 1901, he was able to receive a wireless transmission from across the Atlantic, and kept refining his technology until he could transmit from Nova Scotia to Ireland. He received the Nobel Prize in physics in 1909. In 1912, the Titanic famously signaled for help using Marconi's invention.

Even after his initial successes, Marconi continued to study and develop his science, assisting in the creation of the British Broadcasting Company (BBC) and the development of radar technology. But Marconi would remain most well-known for inventing the radio, bringing increased enjoyment, safety, and information to Georgianna's neighbors and relatives. Many members of Georgianna's community soon could not imagine their lives without the existence of radio.
1897 Coal Miner Strike, 1897
Miners striking in Lattimer, Pennsylvania
A depiction of part of the strike
When Georgianna was in her 20s, many of her neighbors found employment in nearby coal mines, toiling in dangerous conditions for little pay. By 1897, miners in Pennsylvania, Ohio, Illinois, Indiana, and West Virginia had had enough. On July 4, the United Mine Workers of America union called for its 10,000 members to walk off the job—and 150,000 frustrated miners across the region joined in.

For weeks, the miners refused to return to work, despite threats from their employers. On September 10, an argument between a sheriff's posse and striking workers near Hazelton, Pennsylvania boiled over into violence. Nineteen unarmed miners were killed and several more wounded in a confrontation later known as the Lattimer Massacre.

One day later, Georgianna's community received news that the strike had ended. The protestors were relieved to learn that their efforts had not been in vain: employers promised to limit shifts to eight hours. They also agreed to pay workers more regularly and in cash, rather than in credits at the employers' stores. Georgianna's neighbors hoped that the mine owners would hold up their end of the bargain, improving working conditions and quality of life for their families.
Spanish American War, 1898
A battle of the Spanish-American War
During Georgianna's lifetime, the United States began to establish itself as a world power, and began to intervene in international affairs in places like the Philippines, Hawaii, and Cuba. Unfortunately for U.S. foreign relations, this caused a lot of tension, resulting in several conflicts including the Spanish-American War of 1898. Americans around Georgianna were shocked to read the sensational news articles detailing the alleged Spanish attack on the U.S.S. Maine in Cuba. Although only a few thousand Americans died in the war, the U.S. established itself as a major player on the world stage. Many people around Georgianna learned about the war through "yellow journalism," or newspaper articles that contained exaggerated information to promote the war and sell copies.
Georgianna marries Charles Auble, 1898
Georgianna Kemp and Charles Auble married in Milwaukee, Wisconsin on 19 June 1898. They were both residents of Chicago at the time.
Daughter Emily born, 1899
On 19 June 1899, Georgianna's daughter, Emily, was born when Georgianna was 30 years old. The family was living in Chicago, Cook, Illinois, United States at the time.
Chicago River Reversed, 1900
Georgianna was living in Illinois when one of the more impressive feats of modern engineering was completed—the reversal of the flow of the Chicago River. Similar attempts had been made in years past, but it wasn't until 1900 that engineers finally had the technology to permanently reverse the river with the building of the Sanitary and Ship Canal. Now, rather than flowing east into Lake Michigan, the river was directed west toward the Des Plaines River and cities along the Mississippi River such as St. Louis. The change had immediate effects, greatly reducing the number of drinking water-related diseases in Chicago, particularly cholera, and helping improve the movement of ships in and out of the city.
Charles Auble Family in 1900 U.S. Census, 1900
In the 1900 U.S. census, the Charles Auble family lived at 515 West Adams Street in Chicago.. The family included:

* Charles Auble — head of household, white, male, born Oct 1864, age 35, married 2 years, born NJ, parents born NJ, a house decorator
* Georgia Auble — wife, white, female, born Aug 1868, age 31, married 2 years, 1 child born, 1 living, born English Canada, parents born English Canada, immigrated in 1889, resident of US for 11 years
* Emily K. Auble — daughter, white, female, born Aug 1899, age 10 months, single, born IL, father born NJ, mother born English Canada
* Franklin Kemp — Brother-in-law, white, male, born Feb 1880, age 20, single, born English Canada, parents born English Canada
Route 66
Over the course of Georgianna's lifetime, the means of transportation available in America changed immensely. Automobiles gradually became more affordable to people from all walks of life, as highways dotted the landscape and the American auto industry became the centerpiece of a new industrial revolution. Major roads like Route 66, which ran from Georgianna's home state all the way to California, became the backbone for the new America. Similarly, the rise of inner-city train systems like Chicago's "L" system took precedence over the railroads of the previous century. Of course, there was also the literal rise of airplane travel—spurred by the Wright brothers in 1903. At first, only the wealthy could afford to fly, but soon, safer commercial jets began transporting thousands of people to locations all over the country and abroad, and airports like Chicago's O'Hare and Midway became key travel hubs for many of Georgianna's friends and relatives.
Father dies, 1902
Georgianna's father James Abraham Kemp passed away in Delhi, Windham, Norfolk, Ontario, Canada at the age of 71. Georgianna was 34.
Wright Brothers, 1903
When Georgianna was 34 years old, brothers Orville and Wilbur Wright successfully designed and flew the world's first heavier-than-air, human-piloted aircraft. That initial flight in Kitty Hawk, North Carolina, lasted less than a minute and didn't actually gain much public attention. By 1905, though, Georgianna's local newspaper would follow the Wright Brothers closely as their increasingly sustained flights became a national sensation. Within a few short decades, the modern airplane would completely revolutionize travel for people all over the world.
Ford Motors, 1903
Ford Motor Company
In June of 1903, when Georgianna was 34, Henry Ford changed transportation forever by founding the Ford Motor Company in Dearborn, Michigan. In its early years, the company revolutionized manufacturing with its improved version of the assembly line, which had been patented by Ransom Olds of the Oldsmobile company a few years prior. Ford's version of the assembly line used an innovative conveyor system, in which the chassis of the car were towed by a rope from station to station, making production quicker and more efficient. Ford also set a precedent by providing a decent wage for his workers—$5 for a 9-hour day. The introduction of the Model T a few years later allowed millions of middle-class Americans to affordable automobiles.
An advertisement for party lines
Technology rapidly evolved during the 20th century, allowing Georgianna access to more information than ever before. The first great wave of change came with the telephone, which had been invented in the 1870s but only became affordable and widely available for home use in Illinois towards the early 1900s. While some homes had private telephone lines installed, many relied on "party lines," which were shared with up to dozens of households. This was certainly a hindrance on privacy, but a good way to quickly share important information across a neighborhood.

By the '20s, people in Georgianna's community embraced the radio as a revolutionary new form of mass-communication, and top radio stations like Chicago's WGN and WLS gaining loyal listeners. Even sending old-fashioned letters became far easier, as more advanced typewriters were mass-produced (including the Illinois-based Oliver Typewriter brand) and the U.S. Postal Service expanded its services from coast to coast using railroads and highways.
First Radio Broadcast, 1906
Reginald Fessenden
On Christmas Eve of 1906, the Canadian inventor Reginald Fessenden successfully executed the first radio broadcast—a Christmas concert sent out from a radio tower in Massachusetts to crews aboard United Fruit Company ships in the Atlantic Ocean. This was a major milestone in communication, and made news around the world. Soon, people like 37 year-old Georgianna would be able to enjoy this new technology for communication, news, and entertainment.
Forced dumping of liquor during Prohibition in the 1920s.
During Georgianna's lifetime, people participated in government more than ever before. After decades of hard work, women finally won the right to vote in national elections in 1920. That same year, a long debate over alcohol use in America led to Prohibition—an era that would come to be known more for bootlegging and gang activity in Illinois than for curbing alcoholism. Meanwhile, even though Illinois didn't enact the same post-Civil War "Jim Crow Laws" as many Southern states, African-Americans were still treated as second-class citizens, and a disturbing trend of race riots plagued Chicago and several other towns throughout this period. Foreign policy played a key role in politics during the first part of the 20th century, too, as World War I led to the creation of the League of Nations and a renewed sense of patriotism among many of Georgianna's friends and family.
Marshall Field's tea room for shoppers
Outside of Chicago, Illinois was still largely an agricultural state during Georgianna's life. Nonetheless, the explosion of industry wasn't limited to the Windy City, as many major companies moved their factories and headquarters to Illinois for its assets as a central hub of trade, transport, and commerce. By the 1930s, the Great Depression had put many of Georgianna's friends and family on the unemployment line, but powered by strong unions and Franklin Roosevelt's "New Deal," the state eventually bounced back with another wave of strong industrial growth into the 1950s.

While many businesses were still independently owned, Georgianna could also shop at massive department stores like Marshall Field or Montgomery Ward, or use a mail order catalog to have goods delivered to her door. Convenience in commerce was the new norm. Coins and paper money were still commonly used, but personal checks were also more widely accepted than in the past. Like most Americans, Georgianna paid sales taxes on many goods, as well as federal income taxes.
Auble Family in 1910 U.S. Census, 1910
In the 1910 U.S. census, the Charles Auble family resided at 611 West 70th Street in the 32nd Ward of Chicago, Cook County, Illinois. The household included:

* Charles Auble — head of household, male, white, age 54, first marriage, married 11 years, born NJ, parents born NJ, a decorator (of houses), rents home
* Georgia Auble — wife, female, white, age 41, first marriage, married 11 years, 1 child born, 1 living, born Canada English, parents born Canada English, immigrated in 1890
* Emily Auble — daughter, female, white, age 10, single, born IL, father born NJ, mother born Canada English, attended school
Charles Auble Family Moves to San Diego, 1912
Charles and Georgianna (Kemp) Auble moved to San Diego from Chicago in 1912. They resided at 767 14th Street until 1916. Charles worked as a painter. Emily attended San Diego High School.
Titanic Sinks, 1912
On the night of April 14, 1912, when Georgianna was 43, the RMS Titanic sank into the North Atlantic Ocean. Many people read about this tragic accident in the newspaper in the days and weeks following the crash. The Titanic had been sailing at full speed when the crew saw an iceberg, but were unable to turn before it hit the boat's starboard (right) side. The crash and subsequent sinking killed more than 1,500 people and shocked American and European citizens, who believed the Titanic to be unsinkable. The lack of sufficient lifeboats also angered many people and prompted the establishment of the International Convention for the Safety of Life at Sea, which to this day governs maritime safety. It also led to the establishment of the International Ice Patrol, which watches the frigid seas for potentially dangerous icebergs.
Lincoln Highway, 1913
When Georgianna was 44, the Lincoln Highway—America's first transcontinental highway for automobiles—was constructed. Beginning in Times Square in New York City and ending in Lincoln Park in San Francisco, the highway took a direct route of 3,389 miles, and crossed states such as New Jersey, Ohio, Nebraska, and Utah. Before the highway existed, people mostly traveled by rail because roads outside of towns and cities were often in terrible condition. With the introduction of this highway, Georgianna's car-owning friends and family no longer had to worry about train schedules. The highway's booming popularity enticed restaurants, shops and hotels to establish themselves all along the road. The Lincoln Highway revolutionized continental transportation and afforded many Americans the opportunity to travel, explore, and enjoy America's rich land from the comfort of their very own automobile.
White Hurricane, 1913
East 105th Street, Cleveland, Ohio a day after the storm
The Detroit News reporting on the storm
One of the worst storms in the Great Lakes region struck between November 7th and 11th, 1913, when Georgianna was 45. The storm was officially known as the "Great Lakes Storm of 1913," but many in Georgianna's community called it different names, such as the "White Hurricane" and the "Big Blow." The storm paralyzed the entire Great Lakes region and led to the loss of 18 ships and the deaths of at least 250 people. Few who lived on or near the lakes were unaffected by its fury.

The storm was the result of two weather patterns converging over the Great Lakes. The water in the lakes was relatively warm, and helped fuel the gale as it swept over them. Milwaukee and Chicago were buffeted by high waves, which destroyed breakwaters that had been built to protect the cities from flooding. Blizzard conditions swept over parts of Michigan, Ontario and Ohio. The city of Cleveland and southern Ontario were buried under feet of snow and ice; electrical systems were knocked out and it took days to clear the streets and return utilities. Even worse were those sailors caught by the storm on open water. Eighteen ships were lost, many with their entire crews. Eight ships went down on Lake Huron alone. The storm cost millions of dollars both in damages to coastal cities and lost ships.
World War I, 1914 - 1918
When Georgianna was 45 years old, The Great War (later known as World War I) began in Europe. The combination of old military battle tactics and new elements like the machine gun and chemical weapons led to extremely brutal battles between the Allied Powers (including Britain, France, and Russia) and the Central Powers (led by Germany and Austria-Hungary). In the United States, many people were firmly against their nation becoming involved in a war centered around seemingly unrelated events overseas.

Once American soldiers finally did enter the fray in 1917, patriotism and anti-German sentiments ruled the day. In Georgianna's state of California, men between the ages of 21 and 31 rallied and either volunteered or registered for the draft, departing for training in either San Diego or Washington, leaving their loved ones behind. With the men fighting in Europe, American women and minority citizens took over critical factory jobs to keep the country running and the war effort well supplied. More than 110,000 American lives were lost in World War I, and many of Georgianna's fellow Californians were among them.
Charles Auble dies, 1916
When Georgianna was 47, her husband Charles Auble passed away in San Diego, San Diego, California, United States at the age of 66. He fell down stairs in his home while inebriated, and suffered a ruptured gall bladder, according to the death certificate.
California, 1916
Located along the Pacific coast of the U.S., California offered Georgianna a land of endless opportunities—from the sunny beaches in the south, to farmlands in the Central Valleys, all the way up to the redwood forests and Sierra Nevada mountains in the north. California was generally known to the rest of the country for its warm weather, fast-growing cities, and devastating earthquakes—most famously the one that leveled San Francisco in 1906. Agriculture and oil production were key industries during this post gold rush period, as California's population ballooned from just 1.4 million in 1900 to over 10 million by 1950.
National Park Service, 1916
An early poster from the National Park Service
Georgianna was 48 when President Woodrow Wilson signed a bill that created the National Park Service, a new government agency dedicated to the protection and conservation of America's most historic and scenic places. While the idea of conservation wasn't new in the U.S., the job of protecting large, established parks like Yellowstone had generally been left to the military. Now, within a year, Yellowstone and countless other popular destinations would fall under the control of the NPS, ensuring that Georgianna and future generations could see America's history and beauty protected.
Flu Pandemic, 1918
Soldiers with the Spanish Flu in a hospital ward
A terrible flu pandemic struck the United States and the entire world when Georgianna was 49. The Spanish Flu of 1918 infected over a third of the world's population and killed more than 650,000 Americans alone, as the medical community desperately searched for better treatments or a vaccine. (Although it became known as the "Spanish Flu," it is believed to have originated in Kansas, where it spread quickly through army facilities, and then around the globe.) Many public gathering spots like theaters, saloons, sports arenas, and shops were temporarily closed, and some people in Georgianna's community resorted to wearing masks any time they went into town. Hospitals and funeral parlors were overwhelmed, leaving many poor Americans to bury their own loved ones. With World War I raging at the same time, it made for a very challenging period for just about everyone.
1918 Rose Bowl, 1918
Dick Romney
As World War I continued to rage in Europe, football kept spirits high in Georgianna's state. Most college athletes had joined the war effort, and many schools had scaled back their athletics departments to funnel their energy into more "patriotic" activities. However, the White House believed that some fun and games were still necessary to keeping up public morale. The military also considered football to be excellent training for the battlefield. With these rationales in mind, the Mare Island Marines (of California) and the Camp Lewis 91st Division (from Georgianna's home state of Washington) were invited to play in the 1918 Rose Bowl Game. The teams were composed of former college athletes, all-star players, and members of the military.

On New Year's Day, 1918, a crowd of 42,000 gathered in Pasadena, CA, to watch the two teams go head-to-head. A field goal in the second quarter put the Marines on the board, but a touchdown by Dick Romney gave Camp Lewis seven points. The Marines stayed strong, scoring another field goal and a touchdown in the fourth quarter. The final score stood at 19 to 7, and the Mare Island Marines were declared the victors. World War I would continue for several more months, but Georgianna's community could always look back to the joy of the game to escape the uncertainty of wartime life.
Lyle Carringer Family in 1920 U.S. Census, 1920
In the 1920 U.S. census, the Lyle L. Carringer family resided at 2054 Harrison Avenue in San Diego, San Diego County, California. The family included:

* Lyle L. Carringer — head, rents, male, white, age 28, married, can read, can write, born CA, father born PA, mother born KS, an auditor in a dry goods store, a worker
* Emily K. Carringer — wife, female, white, age 20, married, can read, can write, born IL, father born NJ, mother born Canada
* Betty Carringer — daughter, female, white, age 5 months, born CA, father born CA, mother born IL
* Georgia K. Auble — mother-in-law, female, white, age 50, a widow, born in Canada, parents born Canada, immigrated in 1889, naturalized in 1898
18th Amendment, 1920
Prohibition Agents destroying barrels of alcohol
In 1920, when Georgianna was 51, Congress passed the 18th Amendment to the U.S. Constitution, prohibiting Americans from manufacturing or selling liquor. The movement to ban alcohol was sparked by increased interest in temperance due to religious movements in the 1800s and early 1900s, as well as a temporary prohibition enacted during World War I to free up additional grain for food supplies. Supporters of the amendment hoped it would reduce crime rates and stimulate the national economy. Unsurprisingly, it had the opposite effect. Many Americans discreetly brewed and distributed their own alcohol, making bootlegging and smuggling lucrative businesses. In the end, Prohibition hindered the economy by demolishing thousands of jobs, and in 1933, 13 years after its introduction, it was repealed by the 21st Amendment.
19th Amendment, 1920
Governor Gardner, of Missouri, ratifying the 19th amendment
Governor Roberts of Tennessee ratifying the 19th amendment.
When Georgianna was 51 years old, the United States Congress passed the 19th Amendment, prohibiting any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote based on gender. Women had been fighting for expanded rights, including the right to vote, since the early 1800s, but didn't achieve this key goal until 1920. Now, in the years to come, Georgianna and her female colleagues could finally have an equal say in the important political issues that affected their lives.
First Public Radio Broadcast, 1920
Woman tuning a radio, 1923
Georgianna was 52 years old when the first public radio broadcast aired. Up to this point, radios had only been used for one-on-one communication, although a number of ham radio enthusiasts had organized groups for small transmissions. The equipment was often bulky and required constant attention in order to make sure that it ran correctly. Following WWI, technological advancement had made radio more practical, but it still remained a plaything in the eyes of much of the public.

In 1920, the Pittsburgh company Westinghouse (one of the largest radio manufacturers in the nation) devised a plan to sell more radios. They decided to make a broadcasting transmitter that would allow radio owners throughout the region to tune in for different programs. To make this dream a reality, they hired Dr. Frank Conrad — a local ham radio operator who often played records over the air for his friends and listeners — to set up a broadcasting channel, KDKA. November 2, 1920, the day of the presidential election, was to be the first day of programing.

Listeners in the area who tuned in that day heard a reading of the results of the presidential election, where Harding decisively defeated Cox. The broadcast, although heard by only a small group of people, was a stunning success and caused radio mania to grip the nation. Radio sales soon exploded throughout America, and there was a rush to open up and register commercial radio stations in most major cities. The Age of Radio had truly begun.
Rose Bowl Stadium, 1922
With the rapidly growing popularity of Pasadena's annual Rose Parade and Tournament of Roses football game, a new venue was constructed and opened in 1922 to allow for bigger crowds at the event. Costing a little more than $272,000, the horseshoe-shaped stadium—eventually known simply as the Rose Bowl—could house 57,000 football fans, and it became a popular destination for many of Georgianna's friends and neighbors.

Meanwhile, the annual New Year's Day football game played here, the Rose Bowl Game, became a bigger and grander spectacle. The profits derived from visitors and spectators would lead to a number of renovations, and the Rose Bowl stadium eventually would house more than 92,000 fans, becoming one of the largest and most famous sports venues in America.
Hollywood Sign, 1923
When Georgianna was 54, the Hollywood sign was constructed atop Mount Lee in the Hollywood Hills of Los Angeles. Originally built as part of a short term ad campaign for a new real estate development, the $21,000, 50-foot-high sign initially spelled out "Hollywoodland," and had 4,000 20-watt light bulbs that lit up the sign across the valley below. After Hollywood's emergence as the international center of the movie industry in the 1920s, the sign remained in the hills as an iconic symbol, and the "land" portion was eventually removed in the 1940s. The Hollywood sign would survive decades of deterioration and vandalism to remain one of the most recognized images in America.
Scopes Monkey Trial, 1925
Anti-evolution supporters near the trial
William Jennings Bryan
John Thomas Scopes
At age 56, people in Georgianna's community and across the country were captivated by what was known as the "Scopes Monkey Trial." In Tennessee, a substitute teacher named John T. Scopes was accused of illegally teaching evolution in a public school. The famous attorney Clarence Darrow spoke on behalf of Scopes, while former Presidential candidate William Jennings Bryant served as the prosecutor and advocate of fundamentalist Christian beliefs. Reporters swarmed the tiny town, allowing people near Georgianna to follow the proceedings by newspaper. Scopes was found guilty, but the case served an important role in separating church and state in schools across the country.
Penicillin, 1928
Alexander Fleming
In 1928, when Georgianna was 59, scientist Alexander Fleming's petri dish started to grow mold, and a fortuitous lack of cleanliness led to the accidental discovery of the bacteria that facilitated the invention of Penicillin. Penicillin revolutionized the medical world by saving lives and reducing the number of amputations during World War II by halting infections. Fleming's invention meant that many of Georgianna's friends and neighbors, who would have otherwise died of infection, came home alive from World War II. During the first five months of 1943, citizens only had access to 400 million units of penicillin, but by the end of World War II, U.S. companies made 650 billion units a month.
Herbert Hoover, 1929
When Georgianna was 60, California's own Herbert Hoover was inaugurated as the 31st President of the United States. Although not native to California, Hoover became the Republican nominee from the state and was largely known for his humanitarian efforts during and after World War I. Many Californians were excited and proud after hearing that Hoover had won by a landslide, and were thrilled that their state's representative held the highest political office in the nation. However, the stock market crash the following November and the ensuing Great Depression led many Americans to harbor strong resentment towards Hoover, making his one-term presidency one of the least celebrated of the 20th century.
Great Depression, 1929 - 1940
Californians in line waiting for relief checks
When Georgianna was 61 years old, the Great Depression struck the people of California, bringing in the worst economic crisis in the state's history. Businesses and banks closed to the public, investors lost their fortunes, income dropped, and thousands lost their homes and livelihood. Unemployment soared to 28% in 1932, and a record 20% of the population was dependent on public support and relief. Many lived in "Pipe-Cities"—towns of thousands of unemployed workers and families who took shelter inside of concrete pipes and survived on discarded vegetables. To make matters worse, the Dust Bowl in the central U.S. brought over 200,000 people to California with hopes of beginning anew. However, wages were low and work was scarce for both Californians and immigrants. Xenophobia was soon rampant, with specific discrimination leveled towards the state's Filipino and Mexican populations over the belief that they were stealing American jobs. Over 100,000 Mexicans were deported, and the government even paid immigrants to return to their homeland.
Lyle Carringer Family in 1930 U.S. Census, 1930
In the 1930 United States census, the Lyle L. Carringer family resided at 2130 Fern Street in San Diego, San Diego County, California. The household included:

* Lyle L. Carringer - Head, owns home, worth 10,000, has a radio, male, white, age 38, married, first at age 26, born California, parents born Pennsylvania/Wisconsin, an office worker, works in dry goods store
* Emily K. Carringer - Wife, female, white, married, first at age 18, born Illinois, parents born New Jersey/Canada English
* Betty V. Carringer - daughter, female, white, single, born California, parents born California/Illinois
* Georgia K. Auble - mother-in-law, female, white, age 61, widow, born Canada English, parents born Canada English/Canada English, native language English, immigrated in 1890, a naturalized citizen.
Empire State Building, 1931
When Georgianna was 62, the Empire State Building was completed. This iconic structure stood as the world's tallest skyscraper for 40 years and represented the economic strength and wealth of the United States. Georgianna would have likely heard about the completion of this building by radio. Despite the looming cloud of the Great Depression, the Empire State Building gave Georgianna and people around her hope that America would soon find a way out of its economic crisis.
New Deal, 1933 - 1938
A New Deal poster
When Georgianna was 64 years old, America was plunged into economic turmoil with the onset of the Great Depression. In response to the struggling economy, President Franklin D. Roosevelt passed a series of acts and federal programs known as the New Deal. These programs included the Civilian Conservation Corps, which helped develop national parks and forests across the country and provided jobs for young men, as well as the Works Progress Administration, which employed thousands of Americans in public projects such as bridges, schools, and parks. These programs, although controversial at the time, provided employment and economic relief for many of the people around Georgianna.
Dust Bowl, 1934
Supplementing the disaster of the Great Depression, the Dust Bowl ripped through Colorado, Texas, Oklahoma, and Kansas when Georgianna was in her 60s. After decades of farming practices that damaged the land, a period of severe drought and high winds ripped the top soil from previously fertile farms, creating "black blizzards" that reached all the way to the east coast and often reduced visibility to around three feet. 250,000 farmers were forced to abandon their lands and become migrant workers on farms in places like California. Many who stayed behind suffered severe illnesses or death from breathing in silt particles.
Amelia Earhart, 1937
In 1932, Amelia Earhart became the first woman to fly solo in an airplane across the Atlantic Ocean. Just fives years later, when Georgianna was in her 60s, Earhart disappeared during an attempted solo flight over the Pacific Ocean. Her life and accomplishments tremendously motivated women and young girls of the time, who regarded her as a strong independent influence. Though no one knows exactly what happened to Earhart, many people have proposed theories regarding her fate, ranging from mechanical failure to alien abduction.
Grapes of Wrath, 1939
When Georgianna was 70, the celebrated writer John Steinbeck—a native Californian—published arguably his most famous book, The Grapes of Wrath. Written about a family migrating west to California during the Great Depression, the book quickly became a hit and a cultural phenomenon, selling over 430,000 copies within the first year of its publishing, and eventually earning Steinbeck both the Pulitzer Prize and Nobel Prize for literature. Steinbeck wrote many other great works throughout his life, including Of Mice and Men and East of Eden, but his ability to capture the desperation of the Dust Bowl era in The Grapes of Wrath left an indelible impression matched by few other efforts in American literature.
World War II, 1939 - 1945
Eastine Cowner works on a ship under construction at Richmond, California
When Georgianna was 71 years old, World War II began in Europe, only 21 years after the end of the first World War. It would become one of the most destructive conflicts in recorded history, with the U.S. eventually joining the Allied Forces (fighting alongside countries like the Soviet Union and Great Britain) to stop the rise of Nazi Germany, fascists in Italy, and the Empire of Japan. With fronts in both Europe and the Pacific, casualties were high on both sides. An estimated 50 million people died - around 2.5 percent of the world's population at the time.

After the bombing of Pearl Harbor, some people in Georgianna's community feared that the Japanese would invade the American mainland next. Some also worried that the substantial Japanese-American population in California was providing secret intelligence to Japan. Due to this paranoia and increasing security concerns, the U.S. government forced more than 110,000 Japanese-Americans to leave their jobs and homes to enter internment camps, which were very uncomfortable and surrounded by armed guards and barbed wire. While many Americans supported this policy, history would prove it to be a very dark chapter in the country's history.

At the same time, California became a prime training ground for enlisted soldiers during the war, as more than 140 war bases were built. Shipyards were also built along the California coast, providing many of America's ships and planes for the war effort.

With many men fighting overseas, women, African-Americans, and new immigrants joined the workforce in greater numbers, granting them unprecedented opportunity to earn good money while becoming an essential part of the war effort. Rationing and scrap drives were also promoted by celebrities and encouraged as a way for anyone of the homefront to be patriotic and help the boys overseas.

During the war, few Americans were aware of the atrocities of the Holocaust occurring in Europe, as the full scope of the Nazi extermination of Jews and other minorities in concentration camps only became clear in the years that followed. Countless immigrant families in the U.S. would be directly affected by it, however.

In the end, the Allied Forces were triumphant in the war, as Germany's surrender (following the suicide of Adolf Hitler) was eventually followed by the surrender of Japan. There was great rejoicing across the country and much of the world as peace was finally achieved. The price had been extremely high, however. Japan's surrender had come only after President Harry Truman's decision to use the atomic bomb for the first time, killing thousands of civilians in the cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki. The controversy and pain from these and hundreds of other attacks and battles from the six-year war would create deep scars—literal and figurative—that would stay with many members of Georgianna's generation.
Lyle L. Carringer Family in 1940 U.S. Census, 1940
In the 1940 U.S. Census, the Lyle L. Carringer family resided at 2130 Fern Street in San Diego. The household included:

*  Lyle L. Carringer - Head of household, male, white, age 48, married, 4 years of high school, born California, lived in same house in 1935, worked the last week of March 1940, occupation is office clerk, Industry is Retail Dep[artmen]t Store, worked 52 weeks in 1939, earned $1475 in 1939, did not make over $50 in other income.

*  Emily K. Carringer (provided information) - Wife, female, white, age 41, married, attended school in March 1940, 3 years of high school, born Illinois, lived in same house in 1935, did not work the last week of March 1940, had a job, occupation is clerical & saleslady, Industry is Retail Dep[artmen]t Store, worked 52 weeks in 1939, earned $269 in 1939, made over $50 in other income. 

*  Betty Z. Carringer - Daughter, female, white, age 20, single, attended school in March 1940, 4 years of college, born California, lived in same house in 1935, did not work the last week of March 1940,  in School, occupation is student art clerk, Industry is College, worked 6 weeks in 1939, earned $100 in 1939, made over $50 in other income. 

*  Georgia K. Auble - Mother in law, female, white, age 71, widowed, 4 years of high school, born Ontario, Naturalized citizen, lived in same house in 1935, did not work the last week of March 1940, did Housework, occupation is housewife, Industry is own home, earned $0 in 1939,  made over $50 in other income.
Holocaust, 1941 - 1945
Holocaust survivors in 1945
When Georgianna was 72 years old, Adolf Hitler and the Nazis expanded on their already discriminatory laws by placing Jews, gay men and women, disabled people, and other "undesirable" groups in concentration camps across Europe. Over 11 million people, 6 million of whom were Jewish, died at the hands of the Nazis in the genocide. Those who weren't killed in the camps suffered terrible atrocities (including starvation and hard labor) and witnessed the deaths of loved ones. Jews and targeted groups in Nazi-controlled countries were forced to go into hiding or flee Europe to avoid meeting the same fate as many of their friends and family. Meanwhile, many families in these countries who weren't targeted by the Nazi government watched in fear as their friends and neighbors were persecuted or shipped away to camps, and some attempted, at great personal risk, to hide families or smuggle them out of the country.
Pearl Harbor, 1941
Pearl Harbor Bombing
Pearl Harbor
Pearl Harbor
"We interrupt this program to bring you a special news bulletin. The Japanese have attacked Pearl Harbor, Hawaii, by air." Georgianna and Americans all across the country heard these words interrupting their favorite radio programs on December 7, 1941. As World War II raged in Europe, Americans had remained mostly isolated from the events. That all changed when Georgianna was 73, as hundreds of Japanese bombers swarmed the Pearl Harbor naval base in Hawaii, destroying eight battleships and nearly 200 airplanes, and killing over 2,400 Americans. This catastrophic attack was a stunning, defining moment for Georgianna and the country as a whole, as the U.S. was finally catapulted into the worldwide conflict.
Atomic Bomb, 1945
Flight crew
Mushroom cloud
While Georgianna was caught up in the unique mix of pride and despair that was World War II, she and her family had no idea that the United States government was on the verge of developing an atomic bomb to help the Allies' cause. The top secret research operation, known as the "Manhattan Project," culminated with the devastating bombings of the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945, ultimately bringing the war to an end.

Almost immediately after the bombs were dropped, 77 year-old Georgianna and millions of other Americans huddled around their radios to hear the details. Though some questioned whether the ends justified the means, many of the people in Georgianna's life were simply relieved to know that a victory and peace were finally in sight.
General Patton, 1945
When Georgianna was 77, Americans were stunned by the news that General George Patton, a hero of World War II, had died while attempting to recover from a car crash in Heidelberg, Germany. Although known for his hot temper, many regarded Patton—a southern California native—as a key factor in the Allied victory. He had led his army in a successful campaign in Sicily, and also led the American invasion past Normandy to Germany, eventually helping to free Germany from Nazi occupation. His loss was mourned by many people in his hometown of San Gabriel and across the country.
Georgianna dies, 1952
Georgianna died of acute myocardial failure when she was 84 years old in San Diego, San Diego, California, United States. She was inurned at Cypress View Mausoleum in San Diego.
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First, export your tree from MyHeritage as a GEDCOM file. Click here: Instructions

Once you have downloaded the GEDCOM file from MyHeritage, you can import it into HistoryLines. On the "Stories" page, click on "Import a GEDCOM File", then select the file, name it, and click "Upload GEDCOM". HistoryLines will then create your family tree from that GEDCOM file.

HistoryLines can import your tree directly from FamilySearch. On the "Stories" page, click on "Import from FamilySearch". You will be directed to the FamilySearch login page, to sign in, then back to HistoryLines, which will automatically download your family tree into HistoryLines.
Any time you make changes to your tree on FamilySearch, come back to HistoryLines, go to your family tree, click on the person you wish to update, then click on "Update from FamilySearch". The person will be updated with the latest information from FamilySearch.
Each story section can contain up to 10 photos. You can re-arrange, rotate, delete, and add photos on the "Edit" or "Personalize" on any story section. The first photo in the list will display as the large photo in the story. You can also add captions that will appear in the large view, and in the exported PDF.

First, export your tree from your software problem as a GEDCOM file. (See your software guide for instructions)

Once you have downloaded the GEDCOM file from your software program, you can import it into HistoryLines. On the "Stories" page, click on "Import a GEDCOM File", then select the file, name it, and click "Upload GEDCOM". HistoryLines will then create your family tree from that GEDCOM file.

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Go to your "Account" page, click on "Payment Information", then make any needed changes.
Tree Basics
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Importing from FamilySearch Importing GEDCOM Creating PDF
You can leave this page while GEDCOM file is imported.